In June 1996, Hägglunds Vehicle (which late in 2002 became Alvis Häglunds) of Sweden and Patria Vammas of Finland signed an agreement to develop a new turret-mounted twin 120 mm smoothbore mortar system called AMOS (Advanced Mortar System).
The now Alvis Hägglunds has considerable experience in the design, development and production of tracked vehicles and turrets while Patria Vammas has developed and produced a complete range of mortar systems and their associated ammunition.
Under the terms of the agreement, Alvis Hägglunds is responsible for the turret with Patria Vammas responsible for the twin 120 mm smoothbore mortar system.
Two versions of the AMOS 120 mm self-propelled mortar system were originally developed: Model A muzzle loaded and Model B, breech loaded. A decision was subsequently taken to concentrate all work on the breech-loaded version.
AMOS has two breech-loaded mortars, each of which is 3 m long. The barrels are mounted in a common cradle but in this case both of them have a hydraulic recoil brake and pneumatic recuperator of their own, thus enabling each barrel to recoil independently.
Each barrel is fitted with a fume extractor to keep toxic gases inside the vehicle within acceptable levels.
The breech system is a vertical downward-opening wedge type which is operated by a toggle link-type semi-automatic mechanism. Breech obturation and positive shell positioning is achieved by means of a special reusable stub case adapted to each projectile.
Each barrel is provided with a revolver-type projectile feeder, although for the prototype stage loading is manual by means of a loading tray.
The first breech-loaded example was completed in 1997 and was shown for the first time in June of that year. Since then, the system has been test fired in Finland and Sweden and has also been demonstrated to various other potential customers.
The turret is of all-welded steel armour construction which provides protection from small arms fire and shell splinters. It also provides muzzle blast and NBC protection for the turret crew of two. Turret traverse and weapon elevation is all electric, with manual controls being provided as a back-up for emergency use.
A wide range of fire-control options is available, depending on user requirements.
The prototype system had an optical laying system but growth potential could include an automatic loading system and an electronic fire-control system.
Ammunition load would depend on the chassis but typically would be 40 conventional mortar bombs (for example HE, smoke and illuminating) and six guided mortar bombs (for example the Saab Bofors Dynamics/Bofors Defence). Ammunition resupply would take 10 minutes.
As well as Alvis Hägglunds CV90 full-tracked chassis, the AMOS 120 mm mortar system could be fitted to a wide range of other chassis including the Russian MT-LB multipurpose tracked armoured vehicle (used in some numbers by Finland and Sweden), the United Defense LP M113 series tracked vehicle and the Swiss MOWAG Piranha (8 × 8 ) light armoured vehicle.
In mid-1999 the Finnish Defence Force awarded Patria Hägglunds a contract worth Euro4.5 million for the twin 120 mm AMOS.
This contract, the first to be awarded to the new company formed by Alvis Hägglunds and Patria, covered the delivery to the Finnish Army of a study of some aspects of AMOS, including the loading system.
It also covered the supply of one complete AMOS installed on a Patria Vehicles XA-203 (6 × 6) chassis.
In the Spring of 2000, the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration (FMV) and its Finnish counterpart signed a project agreement for the development of the vehicle based twin 120 mm AMOS (Advanced Mortar System).
This agreement is based on a 1994 agreement signed between Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden for the joint development of material to meet the operational requirement of all four countries. For the AMOS project Denmark and Norway have observer status.
The new agreement covers a study and prototype phase that ran through to December 2002 with a total value of SKr100 million. Prime contractor is the Patria Hägglunds Oy which is jointly owned by Patria of Finland and Alvis Hägglunds of Sweden.
The twin 120 mm AMOS has been under development as a private venture for several years and under the terms of this contract the system will be adapted to meet Nordic operational requirements and enable it to be integrated in new and existing chassis, tracked and wheeled.
In mid-2001, the Finnish Defence Forces completed extensive firepower and mobility trials of the AMOS installed on a Patria Vehicles XA-203 (6 × 6) Armoured Personnel Carrier (APC) chassis.
These trials started in November 2000 and were carried out by a FDF crew under a wide range of operational conditions all over Finland. Over 550 120 mm mortar bombs were fired and 3,000 km of road and cross-country running were successfully carried out.
This was the second AMOS turret and was the one ordered in June 1999 and installed on the latest production Patria Vehicles XA-203 (6 × 6) chassis. This was delivered late in 2000 and is referred to as the PT1 and incorporates all of the improvements suggested with the earlier AMOS.
This AMOS turret is of all-welded steel construction providing the occupants with protection from 7.62 mm ball small arms fire and shell splinters.
To this can be added a layer of additional passive armour to provide a higher level of protection. A 7.62 mm or 12.7 mm machine gun can be fitted on the roof for local protection and electrically operated smoke grenade launchers can be mounted either side of the turret. In addition, PT1 has a new and more streamlined shape and incorporates stealth characteristics in its design.
The current PT1 turret weighs 5,800 kg but this does depend on armour protection and if the bustle-mounted ammunition handling system is fitted.
Without the bustle-mounted ammunition handling system, turret weight is reduced to 4,400 kg. The turret crew consists of three, commander (left), gunner (right) and loader.
These can fire all types of 120 mm smoothbore mortar bombs (with the addition of a reusable brass or steel stub cartridge case) including the Patria Vammas 120 mm HE mortar bomb 120VAM15.00. This weighs 15 kg and contains 3 kg of TNT having a maximum muzzle velocity of 480 m/s and a maximum range, using charge six, of over 10,000 m. It also fires smoke and illuminating mortar bombs.
AMOS has also successfully fired the Saab Bofors Dynamics/Bofors Defence Strix 120 mm terminally guided mortar bomb and the RUAG Land Systems 120 mm Mortar Cargo Bomb, which contains 32 grenades fitted with a HEAT warhead that will penetrate 70 mm of steel armour. The grenades are fitted with a self-destruct mechanism.
When installed on the XA-203 (6 × 6) chassis, a total of 90 120 mm mortar bombs can be carried, the type depending on the mission, typically this could be 84 120 mm HE mortar bombs and six Strix guided mortar bombs.
Of these rounds, 30 are in the ammunition handling system in the turret bustle that has two magazines each holding 15 rounds. The remainder are stowed in horizontal racks in the right rear of the vehicle.
Turret traverse is through a full 360d with weapon elevation from -3 to +85d. Elevation and traverse is electric with manual back-up in case of power failure.
AMOS is fitted with a computerised fire-control system developed by Alvis Hägglunds which enables the system to use shoot-and-scoot techniques. This is called the Alvis Hägglunds Control System (AHCS) and also includes training, built in test and battle management functions.
According to the company, AMOS can open fire within 30 seconds of coming to a halt and move off again within 10 seconds of completing its fire mission. A total of four rounds can be fired in about 8 seconds and with a well-trained crew, a maximum rate of fire is stated to be 26 rds/min.
A key feature of AMOS is its ability to employ Multiple Rounds Simultaneous Impact (MRSI) techniques where all rounds hit the target at once for maximum effect.
Following extensive trials with the FDF the AMOS turret was removed from the XA-203 (6 × 6) chassis and sent to Sweden where it was integrated into an Alvis Hägglunds CV 90 full-tracked chassis.
This will undergo extensive trials with the Swedish Army in 2002-2003. Sweden has a requirement for between 50 and 70 AMOS which will be installed on CV90 series chassis provided by Hägglunds Vehicle.
The first customer is expected to be the FDF who, funding permitting, are expected to order four production standard (or O series) turrets.
These will be installed on the Patria Vehicles XA-203 (6 × 6) APC or more probably in the longer term on the new Patria Vehicles Armoured Modular Vehicle (8 × 8 ) which ran for the first time late in 2001.
The FDF will deploy AMOS on a scale of four per regiment/battalion with production probably being undertaken from 2005 through to 2007.
Although originally developed for installation on tracked and wheeled AFVs, AMOS can also be installed on coastal craft and has already been tested on a Swedish Combatboat 90H raiding craft of the Swedish Navy.
Turret weight: 5,800 kg
Armament: 2 × 120 mm mortar
Barrel length: 3,000 mm
Secondary armament: 1 × 7.62 mm MG
Gun control equipment
Turret power: electric/manual
Turret traverse: 360d
Ammunition: 40 HE + 6 guided
Time to fire: 30 s
Time to shoot: 15 s
Max rate of fire: 26 rds/min
First six rounds: 10 s
Max range: 13 km
Simultaneous impact on target: 16 rounds
Спаренный самоходный 120-мм миномёт совместной шведско-финской разработки. На вооружении ни у кого не состоит, существует в виде прототипа. Башня может устанавливаться на различное колёсное или гусеничное шасси, включая БМП-3 и МТЛБ.
Ну и? Древний "Василек" - автоматический миномет. Там по 4 мины зараз очередью выпускаются. Так он просто не в башне с механизмами.
Так его самопалом ставят хоть на грузовик, хоть на БТР... Если сделать не кассету, а сразу автомат, да еще с продувкой ствола...
Так на хрена 2 ствола? Перегрев что ли?
А у этой дуры, выходит, еще и автомат заряжания, да еще двойной?!
Чудны дела твои... Интересен тогда боекомплект. И на сколько минут его хватит?