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Исследование космоса (в научных целях)

Астрофотографы сделали 140-мегапиксельное фото Солнца

Астрофотографы сделали 140-мегапиксельное фото Солнца

Известные астрофотографы Эндрю МакКарти и Джейсон Гензель объединили свой энтузиазм, чтобы создать удивительный снимок Солнца. Результатом их командной работы стала поражающая деталями 140-мегапиксельная иллюстрация нашей звезды.
Солнечный протуберанец
Фотографы вели съёмку Солнца около пяти дней, сделав за это время порядка 90 000 снимков. Затем они собрали их в коллаж, в котором можно потеряться взглядом, если начать увеличивать масштаб.
На изображении в верхней правой части солнечного диска можно увидеть структуру, напоминающую вихрь. Это гигантский протуберанец, который рос на протяжении трёх дней, в итоге достигнув высоты в 120 тысяч километров. Для наглядной аналогии можно вспомнить такой же по длине диаметр Сатурна или почти десять диаметров нашей Земли.
Солнечный протуберанец
Сила притяжения светила заставила протуберанец вернуться, и в падении он распался на фрагменты размером с Луну каждый, что сопровождалось активным выбросом энергии и сверхраскалённой плазмы.
В максимально доступном разрешении снимок можно посмотреть по ссылке.
- Красиво! Просто изумительно. И этой красотой земное человечество сможет любоваться ещё примерно 1 миллиард лет. Затем температура Солнца начнёт повышаться - и жизни на планете Земля придёт конец...
Но раньше в неё обязательно врежется какой-нибудь достаточно крупный астероид, орбиту которого объединённое человечество не сможет чуть-чуть отодвинуть от Земли...
И этой красотой земное человечество сможет любоваться ещё примерно 1 миллиард лет
Полагаю, что уже миллионов через 20 лет красотой будут любоваться млекопитающие стрекозоиды. А через миллиард лет эти стрекозоиды превратятся в фотосинтезирующих ракопауков, которые вполне могут стать термоустойчивыми. Вся эволюция многоклеточных животных - от примитивных губок до человека - прошла менее чем за 1 предыдущий миллиард. А самая первая жизнь начала появляться при светимости Солнца на треть меньше нынешней.

Hubble Captures a Light-Bending Galaxy Cluster​

May 12, 2023
A vast galaxy cluster lurks in the center of this image from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. Like a submerged sea monster causing waves on the surface, this cosmic leviathan can be identified by the distortions in spacetime around it. The cluster’s enormous mass curves spacetime, creating a gravitational lens that bends the light from distant galaxies beyond the cluster. The contorted streaks and arcs of light we see in this image are the result. A host of other galaxies surrounds the cluster, and a handful of foreground stars with tell-tale diffraction spikes are scattered throughout the image.
This particular galaxy cluster, called eMACS J1823.1+7822, lies almost nine billion light-years away in the constellation Draco. It is one of five exceptionally massive galaxy clusters Hubble explored with the aim of measuring the strengths of these gravitational lenses, which would provide insights into the distribution of dark matter in galaxy clusters. Strong gravitational lenses like eMACS J1823.1+7822 can help astronomers study distant galaxies by acting as vast natural telescopes which magnify objects that would otherwise be too faint or distant to resolve.
This multiwavelength image layers data from eight different filters and two different instruments: Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys and Wide Field Camera 3. Both instruments can view astronomical objects in just a small slice of the electromagnetic spectrum using filters, which allow astronomers to image objects at precisely selected wavelengths. The combination of observations at different wavelengths lets astronomers develop a more complete picture of the structure, composition, and behavior of an object than visible light alone would reveal.

Text credit: European Space Agency (ESA)
Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, H. Ebeling

The universe looks amazing in new photos from the James Webb Space Telescope and famed X-ray observatory​


Four new composite images including X-rays from Chandra and infrared data from JWST. Clockwise from left, the images reveal: NGC 346, a star cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud; the barred spiral galaxy NGC 1672; Messier 16 (also known as the Eagle Nebula); and Messier 74, a spiral galaxy similar to the Milky Way. (Image credit: X-ray: Chandra: NASA/CXC/SAO, XMM: ESA/XMM-Newton; IR: JWST: NASA/ESA/CSA/STScI, Spitzer: NASA/JPL/CalTech; Optical: Hubble: NASA/ESA/STScI, ESO; Image Processing: L. Frattare, J. Major, N. Wolk, and K. Arcand)
If you've ever wished you had X-ray vision, NASA has some photos for you.

NASA has released four composite images using data from several of its most advanced telescopes to depict our universe in different wavelengths of light, including data collected by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the Hubble Space Telescope.
The images, which show two galaxies, a star cluster, and a nebula, are rendered in dazzling colors representing X-ray and infrared radiation, as well as optical
The two galaxies pictured are called NGC 1672 and M74. Categorized as a barred spiral galaxy for its straight, "barred" arms of stars near its center, NGC 1672 is a galaxy about 60 million light-years from Earth. The new composite image shows several areas, especially in its outer arms, emitting intense X-ray radiation, shown in purple. According to NASA, these areas represent super-dense objects, such as neutron stars and black holes, that are pulling material into the galaxy.

NGC 1672 is a spiral galaxy, but one that astronomers refer to as a "barred" spiral. In regions close to their centers, the arms of barred spiral galaxies are mostly in a straight band of stars across the center that encloses the core, as opposed to other spirals that have arms that twist all the way to their core. (Image credit: X-ray: Chandra: NASA/CXC/SAO, XMM: ESA/XMM-Newton; IR: JWST: NASA/ESA/CSA/STScI, Spitzer: NASA/JPL/CalTech; Optical: Hubble: NASA/ESA/STScI, ESO; Image Processing: L. Frattare, J. Major, N. Wolk, and K. Arcand)
M74 is a spiral galaxy like our own galactic home the Milky Way, located about 32 million light-years away from us. Also called the Phantom Galaxy because it is visibly very dim, the galaxy has an intricate lacey structure revealed by JWST. Now, data from Chandra notes multiple sources of X-ray radiation, including young stars, dotting the spiral.

Messier 74 is nicknamed the Phantom Galaxy because it is relatively dim, making it harder to spot with small telescopes than other galaxies (Image credit: X-ray: Chandra: NASA/CXC/SAO, XMM: ESA/XMM-Newton; IR: JWST: NASA/ESA/CSA/STScI, Spitzer: NASA/JPL/CalTech; Optical: Hubble: NASA/ESA/STScI, ESO; Image Processing: L. Frattare, J. Major, N. Wolk, and K. Arcand)
Another image shows M16, also called The Eagle Nebula, which is about 6,500 light years away. The image shows the nebula's famous "Pillars of Creation," dramatic clouds of dust and gas containing young stars, the most intense of which are highlighted in brilliant pinks and purples to show the powerful X-rays they emit. The image highlights the finding that most of these young, X-ray-emitting stars are actually outside the pillars, with only a few young stars emitting this intense radiation from within the clouds.

Messier 16, also known as the Eagle Nebula, is a famous region of the sky often referred to as the "Pillars of Creation." (Image credit: X-ray: Chandra: NASA/CXC/SAO, XMM: ESA/XMM-Newton; IR: JWST: NASA/ESA/CSA/STScI, Spitzer: NASA/JPL/CalTech; Optical: Hubble: NASA/ESA/STScI, ESO; Image Processing: L. Frattare, J. Major, N. Wolk, and K. Arcand)
The image with the most notable contribution by Chandra might be of NGC 346, a star cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud, a galaxy 200,000 light-years from Earth. A bright purple splotch on the left side of the image highlights the remnants of a supernova explosion, the spectacular death of a huge star.

Read more: This new supernova is the closest to Earth in a decade. It's visible in the night sky right now.

NGC 346 is a star cluster in a nearby galaxy, the Small Magellanic Cloud, about 200,000 light-years from Earth. The purple cloud on the left seen with Chandra is the remains of a supernova explosion from a massive star. (Image credit: X-ray: Chandra: NASA/CXC/SAO, XMM: ESA/XMM-Newton; IR: JWST: NASA/ESA/CSA/STScI, Spitzer: NASA/JPL/CalTech; Optical: Hubble: NASA/ESA/STScI, ESO; Image Processing: L. Frattare, J. Major, N. Wolk, and K. Arcand)


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Чтобы отпраздновать 20-летие миссии Mars Express, Европейское космическое агентство даст каждому желающему возможность приблизиться к Марсу настолько близко, насколько это возможно в настоящее время. Для этого сегодня в 19:00 ЕКА запустит на Youtube часовую прямую трансляцию с орбиты Красной планеты. Новые изображения непосредственно с камеры на борту марсианского орбитального аппарата будут передаваться примерно каждые 50 секунд.


Hundreds of Mystery Structures Found at The Heart of The Milky Way​

Space02 June 2023
By Michelle Starr
Filaments In Space
MeerKAT data of the orientations of all the filaments, color-coded with position angles. (Farhad Yusef-Zadeh/Northwestern University)

An investigation into the mystery filaments hanging in space around the heart of the Milky Way has turned up an entirely new population of them, aligned along the galactic plane and pointing in the direction of the galactic center.
The magnetized strands are likely the remnants of an outflow from the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* interacting with the surrounding gas a few million years ago, says astrophysicist Farhad Yusef-Zadeh of Northwestern University.
Although Sgr A* is pretty quiet now, these remnants suggest that our galaxy's center has been active recently – on cosmic timescales, that is. And their discovery also means that our galaxy's center, as wild and wooly as we already knew it to be, has more fascinating secrets lurking within.
"It was a surprise to suddenly find a new population of structures that seem to be pointing in the direction of the black hole," Yusef-Zadeh says.
All the filaments discovered to date, color-coded with position angles. (Farhad Yusef-Zadeh/Northwestern University)

Webb Makes First Detection of Crucial Carbon Molecule​

A team of international scientists has used NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope to detect a new carbon compound in space for the first time. Known as methyl cation (pronounced cat-eye-on) (CH3+), the molecule is important because it aids the formation of more complex carbon-based molecules. Methyl cation was detected in a young star system, with a protoplanetary disk, known as d203-506, which is located about 1,350 light-years away in the Orion Nebula.

Carbon compounds form the foundations of all known life, and as such are particularly interesting to scientists working to understand both how life developed on Earth, and how it could potentially develop elsewhere in our universe. The study of interstellar organic (carbon-containing) chemistry, which Webb is opening in new ways, is an area of keen fascination to many astronomers.

3 panels, left, nebula with two stars and multi-hued clouds divided diagonally. Top-right of same area, but upper left region is red, yellow and green, the lower right region is dark blue. Lower right, image of a yellow and orange blob.
These Webb images show a part of the Orion Nebula known as the Orion Bar. The largest image, on the left, is from Webb’s NIRCam (Near-Infrared Camera) instrument. At upper right, the telescope is focused on a smaller area using Webb’s MIRI (Mid-Infrared Instrument). At the very center of the MIRI area is a young star system with a protoplanetary disk named d203-506. The pullout at the bottom right displays a combined NIRCam and MIRI image of this young system.

The unique capabilities of Webb made it an ideal observatory to search for this crucial molecule. Webb’s exquisite spatial and spectral resolution, as well as its sensitivity, all contributed to the team’s success. In particular, Webb’s detection of a series of key emission lines from CH3+ cemented the discovery.

“This detection not only validates the incredible sensitivity of Webb but also confirms the postulated central importance of CH3+ in interstellar chemistry,” said Marie-Aline Martin-Drumel of the University of Paris-Saclay in France, a member of the science team.While the star in d203-506 is a small red dwarf, the system is bombarded by strong ultraviolet (UV) light from nearby hot, young, massive stars. Scientists believe that most planet-forming disks go through a period of such intense UV radiation, since stars tend to form in groups that often include massive, UV-producing stars.
Billowy clouds divided from lower left to upper right. Left, the clouds are various shades of blue with orange wisps throughout. Right, clouds vary from bright orange-red to brown from left to right. Two bright stars with eight diffraction spikes.
This image taken by Webb’s NIRCam (Near-Infrared Camera) shows a part of the Orion Nebula known as the Orion Bar. It is a region where energetic ultraviolet light from the Trapezium Cluster — located off the upper-left corner — interacts with dense molecular clouds. The energy of the stellar radiation is slowly eroding the Orion Bar, and this has a profound effect on the molecules and chemistry in the protoplanetary disks that have formed around newborn stars here.
Credits: ESA/Webb, NASA, CSA, M. Zamani (ESA/Webb), and the PDRs4All ERS Team
Download the full-resolution, uncompressed version and supporting visuals from the Space Telescope Science Institute.

Typically, UV radiation is expected to destroy complex organic molecules, in which case the discovery of CH3+ might seem to be a surprise. However, the team predicts that UV radiation might actually provide the necessary source of energy for CH3+ to form in the first place. Once formed, it then promotes additional chemical reactions to build more complex carbon molecules.
A hazy nebula of colorful material. Top left is green, red and yellow with two small stars and a darker gap region. A wall of cloudy material crosses diagonally towards the bottom right with dark blue filaments and more dark gaps in the bottom corner.
Европа запустила космический телескоп Euclid для изучения Вселенной

Европейское космическое агентство запустило аппарат в субботу на ракете-носителе SpaceX Falcon 9 с мыса Канаверал в США, прямая трансляция велась на сайте организации.

Миссия рассчитана на шесть лет. Основной задачей Euclid станет составление 3D карты космоса. Для этого телескоп будет делать снимки миллиардов галактик, находящихся на расстоянии до 10 миллиардов световых лет. Учёные надеются, что это поможет им больше узнать о природе гравитации, тёмной энергии и тёмной материи.

Сейчас тёмная материя остаётся одним из самых загадочных явлений для науки. Этот «материал» невидим, но проявляет себя при гравитационном взаимодействии. Предполагается, что Euclid сможет проследить распределение этой материи, фиксируя то, как её масса искажает свет, исходящий от далёких галактик. Впервые это сделал телескоп Hubble, но он заснял только два квадратных градуса неба. Область наблюдения Euclid покроет более трети неба — 15 тысяч квадратных градусов.

Ожидается, что новые знания, полученные в ходе миссии, изменят представления об астрофизике и, возможно, понимание самой природы гравитации, пишет Reuters.

Фото: Twitter / ESA's Euclid mission
- Красиво! Просто изумительно. И этой красотой земное человечество сможет любоваться ещё примерно 1 миллиард лет. Затем температура Солнца начнёт повышаться - и жизни на планете Земля придёт конец...
Но раньше в неё обязательно врежется какой-нибудь достаточно крупный астероид, орбиту которого объединённое человечество не сможет чуть-чуть отодвинуть от Земли...
Температура Солнца повышается постоянно, хоть и медленно. Уже через несколько сот миллионов лет жить на Земле будет совершенно невозможно.

The James Webb Space Telescope spots the wreckage of a cosmic clash of the Titans (image)​

The galaxy NGC 3256 is seen as a orange, red, and yellow spiral by the James Webb Space Telescope

(Image credit: ESA/Webb, NASA & CSA, L. Armus, A. Evans)
A new image from the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) shows that when it comes to galaxies, appearances can be deceiving.
The picture shows a serene-looking orange-red galaxy, but this cosmic spiral of gas, dust, and stars hides a violent past representing the wreckage of a massive collision between two earlier galaxies that proceeded around 500 million years ago.
The galaxy in question is NGC 3256, which lies around 120 million light-years from Earth and is a member of the Hydra-Centaurus Supercluster. Hints at the chaotic past of this swirl-like galaxy are hidden within the James Webb Space Telescope image in the form of long tendrils of shining dust and stars which extend outwards from the main body of the galaxy and the brightest portions of NGC 3256.
The study of these cosmic collisions can teach astronomers a great deal about how galaxies like our own, the Milky Way, grow by merging with other galaxies. As this galactic growth results in the merging and growth of black holes, studying wreckage like NGC 3256 could also help solve the mystery of how the supermassive black holes at the heart of most galaxies can grow to masses equivalent to millions or even billions of times that of the sun.
Related: Saturn's rings look gorgeous in 1st James Webb Space Telescope photo of the gas giant .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alien planet with metallic clouds resembles 'a giant mirror in space'
By Will Dunham
July 10, 20238:15 PM GMT+3Updated 2 days ago

An artist's impression of the exoplanet LTT9779b orbiting its host star

An artist's impression of the exoplanet LTT9779b orbiting its host star, located 264 light years from Earth, is seen in this undated handout image provided by the European Space Agency. The planet is around the size of Neptune and reflects 80% of the light shone on it, making it the largest known “mirror” in the universe. Ricardo Ramírez Reyes/Universidad de Chile/Handout via REUTERS/File Photo
WASHINGTON, July 10 (Reuters) - It is a planet astronomers say probably should not even exist.
Researchers said on Monday they have spotted a truly extreme planet beyond our solar system, a blazingly hot world a bit bigger than Neptune that orbits a sun-like star every 19 hours and appears to be wrapped in metallic clouds made of titanium and silicates that reflect most incoming light back into space.
"It's a giant mirror in space," said astronomer James Jenkins of Diego Portales University and the Center for Excellence in Astrophysics and Associated Technologies (CATA) in Chile, a co-author of the research published in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics.
It reflects about 80% of incoming light, making it the universe's most reflective object known. Venus, the brightest object in Earth's night sky besides the moon, is our solar system's most reflective object, enrobed in toxic sulfuric acid clouds. Venus reflects about 75% of incoming light. Earth reflects about 30%.
The planet, named LTT9779b, and its star are located in our Milky Way galaxy about 264 light years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Sculptor. A light year is the distance light travels in a year, 5.9 trillion miles (9.5 trillion km).
The planet's diameter is about 4.7 times greater than Earth, and it orbits very close to its star - closer than our solar system's innermost planet Mercury's distance to the sun and 60 times closer than Earth's orbit. With blistering solar radiation from its star, its surface temperature is about 3,270 degrees Fahrenheit (1,800 degrees Celsius), hotter than molten lava.
With its star so close, it is a wonder it has any atmosphere, according to the researchers. An atmosphere with water-based clouds, as on Earth, would have been blown away by solar radiation long ago. But they believe its clouds are metallic, a combination of titanium and silicate - the stuff that makes up most of the rocks in Earth's crust.
"We even think that the clouds could condense into droplets, and have titanium rain falling in parts of the atmosphere," Jenkins said.
The researchers studied the planet using the European Space Agency's CHEOPS orbiting telescope.
"No other planet like this has been discovered to date," said astronomer and study lead author Sergio Hoyer of the Marseille Astrophysics Laboratory in France.
Possessing an atmosphere while orbiting so close to its star makes it "a planet that shouldn't exist," according to astronomer and study co-author Vivien Parmentier of the Côte d'Azur Observatory in France.
"The super-reflective cloud cover likely helped stop the planet from warming up too much and being stripped of its atmosphere," Parmentier said. "This is quite unique as all other planets at this temperature that are big enough to keep their atmosphere are too hot to form clouds and are thus as dark as charcoal."
It also appears to be tidally locked to its star like the moon is to Earth, with a permanent day side facing the star and a permanent night side facing away.
All previously known planets that orbit their stars in less than one Earth day were either "hot Jupiters," gas giants similar in composition to our solar system's largest planet but much hotter due to solar radiation - or rocky planets smaller than Earth and lacking an atmosphere.
The researchers are pondering whether LTT9779b, classified as an "ultra-hot Neptune," perhaps began as a gas giant only to lose most of its atmosphere, or whether it started out at its current size.
More than 5,000 planets beyond our solar system - called exoplanets - have been discovered, many with traits vastly different than our solar system's eight planets. With increasingly capable instruments coming on line - the James Webb Space Telescope became operational last year and the Extremely Large Telescope is under construction in Chile - more discoveries await.
"The diversity of exoplanets is stunning," Parmentier said, "and we have just scratched the surface."
Reporting by Will Dunham, Editing by Rosalba O'Brien
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