Морская пехота США

Боевой модуль Protector для войсковой ПВО морской пехоты США


С 2007 года армия США по программе CROWS (Common Remotely Operated Weapon Station) получила более 17 000 дистанционно управляемых модулей вооружения (ДУМВ) Protector RWS (Remote Weapon Station). Два с половиной года назад министерство обороны США заключило с норвежской компанией Kongsberg Defense & Aerospace (KDA) предыдущее рамочное соглашение на 549 млн. долл. для поставки американской армии ДУМВ (местное обозначение M153 Crows). Теперь этот заказ выполнен, но останавливаться они явно не собираются. 10 мая МО США объявило о выдаче Kongsberg очередного дополнительного контракта ещё на 499 млн. долл. по программе CROWS для продолжения поставок ДУМВ моделей RS2, RS4, RS6 и оснащения ими бронеавтомобилей Oshkosh 4×4 JLTV (Joint Light Tactical Vehicle) СВ США. Как и ранее, соглашение представляет собой контракт IDIQ (Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity – бесконечная поставка неопределенного количества) с завершением его либо по окончании срока действия в середине сентября 2023 года, либо по израсходованию всех выделенных средств в зависимости от будущих потребностей заказчика.

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RS2, RS4, RS6, RT20, RT40, RT60 – новая классификация для основных моделей современной линейки Protector RWS © Kongsberg


Но, кроме поставок в интересах американской армии, положения нового договора также предусматривают завершение НИОКР по запросу корпуса морской пехоты (КМП) США в целях адаптации штатных боевых модулей для борьбы с воздушными целями, прежде всего с БЛА. Этой темы мы уже касались. Основные изменения в конструкции Protector включают интеграцию ПЗРК Stinger и возможность использования в качестве штатного вооружения автоматической пушки ХМ914 под боеприпасы 30×113-мм.

Командование КМП США считает бронеавтомобили JLTV основной платформой для перспективного облика USMC, а с модифицированными ДУМВ Protector они должны стать главным элементом перспективной системы войсковой ПВО КМП США MADIS (Marine Air Defense Integrated System).

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Автомобили морской пехоты Oshkosh JLTV, вооруженные ДУМВ M153 Kongsberg Protector RWS Crows-J. Впереди – модель RS6 с 12,7-мм пулеметом и ПТРК Javelin, сзади – RS4 c 12,7-мм пулеметом © Foto: Oshkosh Defense

В свою очередь в Kongsberg сообщают, что значительный объем работ ими выполнен заблаговременно. В частности, в KDA уже некоторое время работают над крупным обновлением электроники и программного обеспечения (ПО) как для боевых модулей "скворечников" RS, так и для необитаемых башен RT. Сейчас они находятся на заключительной стадии квалификации для этих изменений, а поставки первых ДУМВ RS4 с ними начнутся осенью (Дания, Канада, Германия и Великобритания).

Что касается интеграции ПЗРК, то впервые такой вариант ДУМВ успешно испытан в Норвегии ещё в 2004 году.

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Прототип самоходного ЗРК V/SHORAD (Very Short Range Air Defence) на шасси БТР М113 с ДУМВ Protector RWS-US, 12,7-мм пулеметом и ПУ ПЗРК Stinger компании Kværner Eureka © Forsvaret

Разумеется, за почти 20 лет ПО изменилось кардинально. Но к настоящему времени на ДУМВ Protector штатно интегрированы ПТРК Javelin, MMP (Missile Moyenne Portée) и Spike, ракеты которых сходны по массо-габаритным характеристикам с FIM-92 Stinger, а интерфейсы современных систем во многом стандартизированы. Поэтому в KDA считают, что этот аспект не займет у них много времени.

Таким образом, остается только на RS6 вместо 12,7-мм пулемета M2 Browning поставить 30-мм пушку ХМ914 и отстрелять её.

Начало поставок первых образцов таких ДУМВ в войска для испытаний ожидается до конца текущего года.

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Обслуживание 30-мм артустановки ХМ914E1/M230 ударного вертолета Boeing AH-64 Apache © Foto: Staff Sgt. Scott Tynes

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Стрельба из пушки M230 ударного вертолета AH-64 Apache © Foto: 1st Lt. Ryan DeBooy
 
Мои предположения, как следует понимать написанное:
- Взвод то ли не изменится вообще (43 - это аккурат 3*13 плюс управление), то ли будет состоять из двух отделений по 15 чел., управления плюс чего-то вроде пулеметного отделения в 8-10 чел.
- Если единые пулеметы "спустятся" во взвод, то получается, что 81-мм минометы и "Джавелины" предполагаются, да, на ротном уровне.
- Тогда получается, что ни минометов, ни ПТУР на батальонном уровне не останется вообще (из самого факта расформирования рот оружия это не следует, ибо минометные и ПТ взводы можно передать в штабные роты росчерком пера).
- В целом вооружение пехотных взвода и роты не облегчится, а утяжелится (плюс добавится техника вроде генераторов или средств водоочистки - а доселе подразделения до роты вообще не были оснащены вообще ничем, кроме носимого оружия). Что, впрочем, вполне соответствует концепции применения групп от взвода до роты для охраны атоллов с ракетными батареями или ВПП.
Я почти было решил, что мое понимание последних публикаций о реорганизации сабжа - неправильное, как...
Внезапно, публикация 2009 года:
1) The experiment will test whether a rifle company (specifically, a company landing team (CoLT)) can be an effective independent unit of action. Previously, the battalion landing team was organized to be the smallest such unit.

2) The experiment envisions distributed operations as a standard technique.

3) Applying experience from Iraq and Afghanistan, the experimental rifle company TO adds operations/intel/logistics personnel to the CoLT HQ element. It also adds two five-man scout/recon teams to the company.

4) The experiment will use unmanned ground and air vehicles controlled by the CoLT for ISR and logistics support purposes.

5) The experiment will attached a platoon of 155mm howitzers to the CoLT.

6) The experiment will occur as an over-the-horizon surface and helicopter-borne amphibious assault into the rugged Kahuku Infantry Training area on the north shore of Oahu. I can report from personal experience that this training area - with its many steep compartments and thick vegetation -- provides an unusual challenge for movement, communications, and control of subordinate units.
Далее в обсуждении:
You have to be able to read the full Gazette article in print or online to see the figures, but the proposed organization calls for restructuring the assault section of 6 x two-man teams out of the Weapons Platoon and into the platoons, which lose a fire team apiece of men, as well as the messenger billet (structure-wise) to serve in either the new scout section of 2 x five-man teams under a section leader, or in the beefed-up Co HQ of 12 men (including the normal CO/XO/1stSgt/Co GySgt slots).

The Assault Section Leader and Weapons Plt Sgt are also out of the mix and moved to either the HQ or scout section, from what I can tell. The scout teams remind me of Army Combat Observation Lasing Teams (COLTs). It all makes for interesting stuff, since there is no net increase away from the current T/O.

The HQ is very interesting, and I'm curious what the experimenters are aiming at with adding 2 x Ops NCOs, 3 x Ops Clerks, and a Log NCO. Great stuff for running a COP as part of a distributed operations envelope, but I'm not so sure I see the utility for light infantry operations beyond utilizing embedded micro-UAV assets. With more men at one's disposal, the tendency may be to pack more trash to take on operations.

This structure does, however, at least give the HQ enough teeth to provide for its own security for limited durations, or maybe longer, allowing for more forces afield and saturating specific areas.

Теперь свежее:
...The Force Design update notes that work over the last year “invalidated the requirement to replace existing LAV-25s with a similar armored, wheeled or tracked manned vehicle in a one-for-one ratio. Continued to examine options for the conversion of legacy Light Armored Reconnaissance capabilities to more broadly capable Mobile Reconnaissance,” it reads.

The work also identifies a “multi-domain Mobile Reconnaissance unit” that would have organic precision fires, “light-weight vehicles, unmanned air and surface systems, boats, and other capabilities necessary to succeed in a contested information environment.”

... “The ARV is not a LAV: it is a platform, it is an open-architecture, payload-agnostic platform largely that we’re going to have platform-agnostic payloads on that are going to enable us to sense, make sense, [command and control], quarterback, do other things with,”

...Listed in the Force Design 2030 annual update as ongoing acquisition priorities are:

  • Expeditionary long-range precision fires and infantry battalion organic fires (Organic Precision Fires- Infantry and OPF-Mounted)
  • Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) Unmanned Expeditionary Medium-Altitude Long-Endurance (MALE) aerial systems and sensors
  • Long Range Unmanned Surface Vessel with associated swarming drones
  • An expeditionary C5ISRT/counter-C5ISRT naval grid that can operate when national connections are lost or degraded
  • Semi-autonomous air and surface vessels to provide sensing, targeting, lethality and connectivity in degraded and austere naval environments
  • Short-range air defense systems, with an objective of longer ranges
  • Network modernizations, to include artificial intelligence and cloud technologies
  • Remotely Operated Ground Unit Expeditionary (ROGUE Fires, or an unmanned Joint Light Tactical Vehicle equipped with the Naval Strike Missile)

Personnel and the Infantry Battalion

Part of the need for more experience is driven by an “arms room” concept, where instead of each Marine specializing in a particular weapon system, and having separate weapons company to bring in further capability, the infantry Marines would be a little more well rounded and able to operate whichever weapon the situation calls for.

“We seek to enhance the infantry battalion’s capabilities by adding organic multi-domain sensing (Operations in the Information Environment, Electronic Warfare, and Unmanned Aircraft Systems) capabilities, organic loitering munitions, and increased mobility. One of the changes being evaluated is a shift to an ‘arms room’ concept with the elimination of Weapons Company and the shift of weapons systems formerly associated with Weapons Company, 81mm mortars and the Javelin for example, into the headquarters or rifle companies. This will allow the rifle company to select mission-specific lethality and employ it organically,” reads the Force Design annual update.

... arms room concept calls for “producing a more mature, sort of multi-dimensional utility infielder as an infantryman. So right now, if you’re going to be an infantryman you get basic infantry training and then you specialize in a given weapons system. If you’re going to become a machine gunner, you become an 0331 and you get machine gun training. We have separate Marines who are mortarmen, others who are anti-tank assaultmen, et cetera. What this would do is increase the duration of the entry-level infantry training pipeline, train the infantry Marine in a variety of crew-served weapons systems, such that they are capable of operating more than just one, and then the unit would make a decision based on the mission they’re assigned, based on the threat, et cetera, what weapon systems they wanted to assign to their Marines to execute a given mission. So the arms room means that you would have a sort of an armory of many different systems, and your Marines would be trained in all of them, and then you pick the weapons suited to the mission … as opposed to having single-threat Marines who are only experts at one system.”

...For previous generations of Marines, shooting at 700 meters was the domain of snipers; when improvements to the barrel and optics of the infantry automatic rifle came along, any individual Marine could successfully hit targets at that range.

Similarly, Smith said, now loitering organic precision fires from a mortar tube can strike targets at ranges much greater than the 60mm or 81mm mortar can, with the added loitering capability; given the great capability of those systems, are they considered weapons or munitions?
Скажу от себя - все это довольно странно. Да, несомненно, нужна некая организационная гибкость. Но каким минометчиком или оператором ПТУР (даже с супер-дупер-"выстрелил и забыл" боеприпасами) будет стрелок, которому как-то показали миномет или ПТУР, я не знаю. Соответственно, снайперы - не просто стрелки с ружбайкой, из которой можно попасть на 700 м, но как бы перцы, способные действовать в отрыве от главных сил подразделения, по-особенному маскироваться и т.п. ...
 
О барражирующих боеприпасах:
“Hero-120 is a high precision smart loitering munition system with a unique aerodynamic structure that carries out pinpoint strikes against anti-armour, anti-material and anti-personnel targets including tanks, vehicles, concrete fortifications, and other soft targets in populated urban areas,” says UVision. “The Hero-120’s high precision capability ensures minimal collateral damage. Its wide range of multi-purpose warheads enable the operational user to effectively engage all targets.”

The Light Armored Vehicle-Mortar, into which the Hero-120 is to be integrated, is an eight-wheeled, amphibious troop transport that carries an 81mm mortar. The 81mm mortar is designed to provide indirect support fire to light infantry at ranges between 2.4nm and 3nm, according to the USMC. The Hero-120 has a range of 21.6nm.
4 Bazelet St.,
Sapir Industrial Park,
Zur Igal,
ISRAEL 44862


The Hero-120 is the largest of the short-range systems and ideal for anti-tank missions or other tactical objectives. It carries a 4.5 kg warhead and has an extended flight time of 60 minutes.
В других источниках масса БЧ 4 кг. Что меня удивляет - это как бы считается достаточным для поражения танков - притом, что БЧ как бы не оптимизированная для кумулятивного действия, а многорежимная. Но, да, становится понятно, почему КМП потерял интерес к ПТУР TOW.
 
Marine from 31st MEU performs pepper spray training
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Marine Corps successfully demonstrates NMESIS during LSE 21

Marine Corps successfully demonstrates NMESIS during LSE 21
18 Aug 2021
The Navy/Marine Corps Expeditionary Ship Interdiction System successfully hit its target in support of Marine Corps Forces, Pacific, during Large Scale Exercise (LSE) 21 Aug. 15, 2021...

A Navy Marine Expeditionary Ship Interdiction System launcher deploys into position aboard Pacific Missile Range Facility Barking Sands, Hawaii, Aug. 16, 2021. The NMESIS and its Naval Strike Missiles participated in a live-fire exercise, here, part of Large Scale Exercise 2021. During the training, a Marine Corps fires expeditionary advanced base sensed, located, identified and struck a target ship at sea, which required more than 100 nautical miles of missile flight. The fires EAB Marines developed a targeting solution for a joint force of seapower and airpower which struck the ship as the Marines displaced to a new firing position. The Marine Corps EABO concept is a core component of the Force Design 2030 modernization effort. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Maj. Nick Mannweiler, released)

Marine Corps successfully demonstrates NMESIS during LSE 21

itionary Ship Interdiction System (NMESIS) successfully hit its target in support of Marine Corps Forces, Pacific, during Large Scale Exercise 21 Aug. 15, 2021. The exercise showcased the U.S. maritime forces’ ability to deliver lethal, integrated all-domain naval power.

Xavier Vavasseur 18 Aug 2021

Story by Kelly Flynn, Marine Corps Systems Command

LSE 21 was a live, virtual and constructive scenario-driven, globally-integrated exercise with activities spanning 17 time zones. LSE 21 applied and assessed developmental warfighting concepts that will define how the future Navy and Marine Corps compete, respond to crises, fight and win in conflict.
The Marine Corps’ NMESIS will provide the Marine Littoral Regiment with ground based anti-ship capability to facilitate sea denial and control while persisting within the enemy’s weapons engagement-zone, and LSE 21 provided a venue for the program team to validate some of those concepts.
Marine-Corps-successfully-demonstrates-NMESIS-during-LSE-21-2-1024x576.jpg
A Naval Strike Missile streaks out to sea before striking a naval target ship, Aug. 15, 2021, aboard Pacific Missile Range Facility Barking Sands, Hawaii. The missile flew more than 100 nautical miles before finding its mark. The live-fire sinking exercise demonstrated a Marine fires expeditionary advanced base’s ability to sense, target and strike a target at sea, providing sea control or contributing to sea denial in fleet operations. The Marine Corps’ Force Design 2030 centers on Marines providing long-range precision strike capabilities as a stand-in force during littoral operations in a contested environment. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Lance Cpl. Dillon Buck, released)
“This scenario is representative of the real-world challenges and missions the Navy and Marine Corps will be facing together in the future. This exercise also provided an opportunity for us to work alongside our service partners to refine Force Design 2030 modernization concepts.”


Brig. Gen. A.J. Pasagian, commander of Marine Corps Systems Command.
SINKEX, the exercise scenario involving NMESIS, provided a testing environment for new and developing technologies to connect, locate, identify, target and destroy adversary threats in all domains, culminating in the live-fire demonstration of the naval strike missile against a sea-based target. During the exercise, forward-deployed forces on expeditionary advanced bases detected and, after joint command and control collaboration with other U.S. forces, responded to a ship-based adversary. Simultaneous impacts from multiple, dispersed weapons systems and platforms across different U.S. services—including NMESIS—engaged the threat.
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Artillery Marines from 1st Battalion, 12th Marines provide security as a Marine KC-130J loadmaster deploys a Navy Marine Expeditionary Ship Interdiction System launcher aboard Pacific Missile Range Facility Barking Sands, Hawaii, Aug. 15, 2021. After striking a naval target ship with two Naval Strike Missiles flying 100 nautical miles, 1/12 rehearsed tactical displacement and relocation. A key component of the Marine Corps’ Force Design 2030, expeditionary advanced base operations include low-signature, dispersed teams of Marines holding a potential adversary’s ships at risk from long-range precision strike weapons, providing sea control and contributing to sea denial in support of the Fleet. The training, part of Large Scale Exercise 2021, allowed Marines to refine support to distributed maritime operations by providing expeditionary advanced base operations and littoral operations in a contested environment. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Luke Cohen, released)
NMESIS integrates established, proven sub-systems, such as the Joint Lightweight Tactical Vehicle Chassis, the Naval Strike Missile and the Fire Control System used by the Navy for NSM.
“From an acquisition perspective, NMESIS started a little over two years ago. We’ve been able to rapidly move [on developing and fielding this system] because we’re leveraging existing NSM and JLTV subsystems.”


Joe McPherson, long range fires program manager at MCSC
Marine-Corps-successfully-demonstrates-NMESIS-during-LSE-21-4-1024x683.jpg
A Navy Marine Expeditionary Ship Interdiction System launcher, a command and control vehicle and a Joint Light Tactical Vehicle are transported by a U.S. Navy Landing Craft Air Cushion from Pacific Missile Range Facility Barking Sands, Hawaii, out to U.S.S. San Diego, Aug. 16, 2021. The movement demonstrated the mobility of a Marine Corps fires expeditionary advanced base, a core concept in the Marine Corps’ Force Design 2030 efforts. U.S. Navy and Marine Corps units came together from across 17 time zones as they participated in Large Scale Exercise 2021. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Luke Cohen, released)
Because NMESIS is not yet a fielded capability, engineers from MCSC managed the fire control piece of the system during the exercise. Marines, however, were able to practice maneuvering the system and validating the system’s interoperability with their Naval and Air Force partners.
“This week was very successful,” said McPherson. “In addition to the two live fire shots that hit the target, we also successfully deployed the system aboard the Marine Corps’ primary transport systems, the C130 and LCAC.”
Though not associated with its program development, the NMESIS transportability and mobility demonstration serves an important role in developing tactics, techniques and procedures related to this critical capability, said McPherson.
MCSC is developing and fielding new anti-surface warfare weapons capabilities, including NMESIS, on pace to support Force Design 2030 objectives. These new capabilities contribute to the Fleet’s ability to achieve sea control, sea denial and defense against adversary amphibious force missions.
Marine-Corps-successfully-demonstrates-NMESIS-during-LSE-21-5-1024x731.jpg
Pfc. Guerby Destine, 22, number two cannon cocker with 1st Battalion, 12th Marines and a Westbury, N.Y., native, drives a Navy Marine Expeditionary Ship Interdiction System launcher aboard Pacific Missile Range Facility Barking Sands, Hawaii, Aug. 15, 2021. The Marines of 1/12 struck a naval target ship with two Naval Strike Missiles after sensing and targeting the vessel from their fires expeditionary advanced base while participating in Large Scale Exercise 2021. The exercise allowed Marines to support distributed maritime operations by providing expeditionary advanced base operations and littoral operations in a contested environment. More than 25,000 Marines and sailors took part in LSE 2021 from five numbered fleets and all three Marine Expeditionary Forces. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Luke Cohen, released)
“This exercise gave us an opportunity to not only measure, but also validate the concepts for [the Marine Corps’] anti-ship capability, which is one of the most important avenues of the Commandant’s Force Design 2030. I think the successful launches of the missile will help us clarify the path forward as we move to fulfill the Commandant’s 2030 vision, and giving the Marine Corps a transformative anti-ship capability.”



Lieutenant Col. Ryan Collins, combat integration office for artillery and fires at Marine Corps Combat Development Directorate, Combat Development and Integration.
Exercises such as LSE 21 increase maritime interoperability and the ability to project American power at home and around the world.
-End-

About NMESIS

  • A Navy Marine Expeditionary Ship Interdiction System launcher vehicle deploys into position aboard Pacific Missile Range (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Luke Cohen, released)
  • A Navy Marine Expeditionary Ship Interdiction System launcher vehicle deploys into position aboard Pacific Missile Range (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Luke Cohen, released)
  • An artillery Marine from 1st Battalion, 12th Marines maneuvers a Navy Marine Expeditionary Ship Interdiction System launcher across the beach aboard Pacific Missile Range Facility Barking Sands, Hawaii, Aug. 16, 2021. During Large Scale Exercise 2021, the Marines of 1/12 struck a naval target ship with two Naval Strike Missiles which flew more than 100 nautical miles before striking the ship. LSE 2021 allowed Marines to refine concepts such as expeditionary advanced base operations and littoral operations in a contested environment in order to provide sea control or contribute to sea denial near key maritime terrain. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Luke Cohen, released)
NMESIS combines the NSM anti-ship missile with a Remotely Operated Ground Unit for Expeditionary (ROGUE) Fires vehicle, produced by Oshkosh Defense
NSM is a multi-mission cruise missile designed to destroy heavily defended maritime and land targets; it is the U.S. Navy’s over-the-horizon weapon system for littoral combat ships and future frigate
As we reported previously, the USMC selection of Naval Strike Missiles from Raytheon was first announced in May 2019. The image released today confirms that the USMC uses an unmanned variant of the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV) known as “ROGUE Fires”, as the NSM launch platform. The same vehicles is used for rockets:
The NMESIS was test fired for the first time during a “November 2020 live fire event “ which we first mentioned back in February 2021.
 

Дебют безэкипажной пусковой установки ракет NSM морской пехоты США
В продолжение темы:
17 августа ВМС США объявили, что прототип безэкипажной ПУ ROGUE Fires (Remotely Operated Ground Unit for Expeditionary) для крылатых ракет NSM (Naval Strike Missile) на шасси бронеавтомобиля Oshkosh JLTV (Joint Light Tactical Vehicle) корпуса морской пехоты США впервые принял участие в проходившем на Гавайях учении Large Force Exercise 2021 (LSE).

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Photo © US Navy
 
Kaman launches new medium-lift UAV for US Marine Corps resupply tasks
News
Kaman launches new medium-lift UAV for US Marine Corps resupply tasks

22 Sep 2021
Kaman Corporation yesterday unveiled the KARGO UAV, the newest addition to its family of purpose-built, autonomous unmanned systems designed to be the new standard for expeditionary logistics.


Anti-ship missile capability among USMC top priorities
News
Anti-ship missile capability among USMC top priorities

20 Sep 2021

The US Marine Corps’ top modernization priority is fulfilling the requirement for a ground-based anti-ship missile capability. The operational requirement for this ship-killing capability is a relatively new development stemming from the Commandant’s Planning Guidance and the Corps’ Force Design 2030 efforts.
 
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