Подводные лодки разных стран

New Submarines Compared: Columbia Class, Dreadnought Class And SNLE-3G
New Submarines Compared: Columbia Class, Dreadnought Class And SNLE-3G
24 Nov 2021
While Russia is already pumping out its latest Borei-II class ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs), the ...

New Submarines Compared: Columbia Class, Dreadnought Class And SNLE-3G

US Navy, Royal Navy and French-Navy-Ballistic-Missile Submarine SSBNs

Click To Enlarge. The U.S. Navy's Columbia Class SSBN will be larger than either the new Royal Navy or French Navy (Marine Nationale) boats. New Submarines Compared: Columbia Class, Dreadnought Class And SNLE-3G
Ballistic Missile Submarines (SSBNs) form the backbone of nuclear deterrents. Yet the types in service with NATO navies, the U.S., U.K., and France, are reaching the ends of their service lives. The new submarines which are being built to succeed them should keep the deterrent dependable in an uncertain future.

H I Sutton 24 Nov 2021

While Russia is already pumping out its latest Borei-II class ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs), the equivalent boats in service with the US Navy and Royal Navy are towards the end of their lives. And France’s too, while more recent, will also need replacement in the coming years. So Western navies are already working on the replacements.

There are corresponding next generation strategic submarine projects in the United States, Britain, and France. How do the new boats compare?

The ProjectsThe current US boats were introduced at the end of the 1970s, while the British ones came in the early 1990s. And the French boats in the late 90s. Because the three countries have historically launched their SSBNs at different times, the replacement cycle does not usually aligned. That has changed, in part because the current boats have been kept in service longer than intended. But we now have the three countries designing comparable boats at the same time.

In the U.S. Navy the current Ohio Class SSBN will be replaced by the Columbia (SSBN-826) Class from the 2030s. Meanwhile the first of the Royal Navy’s Dreadnought Class submarines, which will replace the current Vanguard Class, has already been started. The Vanguards are newer than the Ohios and already feature modern features such as pump-jet propulsion. France has started the SNLE-3G (Sous-marin nucléaire lanceur d’engins – 3rd generation) to succeed the current Triomphant class.

All three new designs share many aspects in common. Externally, x-form rudders and the latest pump jets for example. On the inside they are likely to share many sensitive technologies too. But there are some major differences in the overall designs.

Counting Missiles

Cutaway of Royal Navy Dreadnought Class Submarine Click to Enlarge. The Dreadnought Class SSBN (ballistic missile submarine) will incorporate advanced features. This includes a new multi-layered sound reducing stealth, with built in outer hull.
At about 171m the Columbia class will be about the same length as the Ohio Class SSBNs, or a touch longer. This is despite carrying fewer ballistic missiles. Originally the Ohios each carried 24 Trident SLBMs (submarine launched ballistic missiles) but this has been reduced to 20 by deactivating four of the tubes in situ. The reduction to 16 missiles is a return to the pre-Ohio days, and is primarily driven by cost. However, it also reflects more current deterrence calculations. Fundamentally the Trident force must have enough submarines, each with enough missiles, to guarantee an unacceptable loss on any would-be nuclear aggressor. That is the minimum deterrence. The U.S. Navy believes that 12 boats with 16 missile tubes each will be enough to provide a credible deterrent into the future.

When they are launched the Columbias will carry the same Trident D5 missile as the current Ohios. The plan it to replace this with a successor missile from the 2040s.

The British Dreadnought class will also carry fewer missiles than the current Vanguard class, with 12 instead of 16. And for operational reasons the actual load may be fewer in practice.

The missiles and the corresponding missile compartments are closely related between the U.S. and British boats. There is increasing collaboration between America and Britain. There has always been a special relationship, with submarine technology flowing both ways. The Columbia and Dreadnought Classes will take this to new levels. They will share key components in the reactor and machinery spaces. And the missile sections, which largely dictate the size of the boat, will be a common build. Essentially think of these as being the same boat in the middle, with each country adding their own forward hulls and trimmings.

The new common missile modules are built in sets of four missile tubes. So the Colombia Class will have four sets (16 missiles) and the Dreadnought three (12 missile tubes).

The French SNLE-3G is also already under development. Unlike the American and British designs it will retain the same number of missile silos as the current Triomphant class. This has 16 tubes and is armed with the latest M51 SLBM.

The SNLE-3G is expected to leverage technology from the latest Suffren Class attack submarine. Because of the size of the missiles the hull will have to be larger, it cannot be simply a modified Suffren.

Stealthier boats

The Marine Nationale's New Nuclear Submarine Design Click to Enlarge. The SNLE-3G submarine is outwardly similar to the current Triomphant-class boats. But it will incorporate new technologies and approaches which will be a massive leap in capability and survivability.

Not unsurprisingly all three boats will be stealthier than the current types. For the American and British designs, new nuclear reactors coupled with turbo-electric drive will further reduce radiated noise. This requires more space however, so the boats are growing in size and displacement despite carrying fewer missiles.

The most noticeable stealth features will be on the British boat. The Dreadnought class is likely to include the angled outer hull shape which Britain has been quietly evolving for 30 years or more. Not much talked about, this angled stealth has become better known thanks to the German Type-212CD design. But British designers have been incorporating it, to varying degrees, for a while. The visible clue will likely be a long chine running along the sides with slab-like hull lines above and below.

The French boat will also feature improved stealth. France is already known for its system of raft-mounting the machinery to reduce noise. Added to this will be new noise-reduction anechoic tiles on the outside of the hull, similar to those already seen on British designs.

Other Navies Join The Nuclear Game

All three new designs promise to be incredibly capable platforms. They will be worthy successors to the Ohio, Vanguard and Triomphant classes. They are different; American and French designs will carry more missiles, wile the British design as the most obvious emphasis on new stealth technologies. But the bigger takeaway is that they are also in many ways similar, more so than in previous generations. The US and British designs in particular even share many components.

By the time they enter service, Russia’s Borei-II will be the ones which look dated. Still effective, but half a generation older. Russia however has a trick up its sleeve which will change the shape of its nuclear deterrent. As well as ballistic missile submarines, it is building a whole new category of nuclear armed submarines. Carrying the Poseidon intercontinental nuclear powered autonomous torpedo, these will have no analogue in the West.

And the at-sea detergent landscape is becoming more crowded. China too is building a new generation of SSBN, although specific details are still sketchy. And India too. Meanwhile North Korea’s conventionally powered missile subs are likely to become more potent, and other countries will be fielding nuclear armed cruise missiles.
South Korea’s First Nuclear Submarine Looks Closer
South Korea’s First Nuclear Submarine Looks Closer
15 Dec 2021

More countries are turning to nuclear-powered submarines. The Royal Australian Navy began the AUKUS program ...
South Korean Nuclear Submarine Cutaway
Click to Enlarge. The KSS-III class could be the viable basis for a first generation nuclear submarine. South Korea could partner with an experienced country, possibly France, to fast-track development.
South Korea’s First Nuclear Submarine Looks Closer
Nuclear submarines offer significant advantages over non-nuclear ones. South Korea has been looking to acquire them for many years and now has the industry to do it.

H I Sutton 15 Dec 2021

More countries are turning to nuclear-powered submarines. The Royal Australian Navy began the AUKUS program this year. And the Brazilian Navy signed off construction of its SN-BR boat on November 25. Meanwhile defense analysts are watching another likely candidate in the atomic submarine game, South Korea.

On November 10 local media (in Korean) reported on plans to start work on an indigenous nuclear reactor. The multipurpose system is described in civilian terms. But observers have been quick to make the association to a South Korean Navy (ROKN) nuclear submarine program. (In naval terminology, nuclear submarine refers to the power plant, not the armament).

It is no secret that South Korea as an interest in building nuclear submarines. It has been an open discussion for nearly twenty years and AUKUS has only reinvigorated it. And South Korea now has the submarine building industry, and nuclear industry, to do it.

Motivations For The KSS-N Submarine

While AUKUS may be the most visible catalyst, it is not the reason that South Korea are interested in building a KSS-N (an unofficial term, referring to a Korean submarine with nuclear propulsion). The country faces a rapidly developing submarine threat from North Korea. The northern neighbor, with whom they are technically still at war, does not have nuclear submarines. But it is building nuclear armed conventional submarines. South Korea’s submarines are individually much more sophisticated. But they are not as capable at dealing with these threats as nuclear ones would be.

Nuclear submarines offer navies many advantages over regular diesel-electric boats. Primarily it allows them to travel at much higher speeds and for much longer. The submarine’s endurance, and thus combat persistence, is limited by the crew rather than the propulsion.

Diesel-electric submarines, which are the mainstay of South Korea’s submarine force, can operate for a few weeks at a time. When they return to base they are particularly vulnerable. Nuclear submarines can operate for several months, and cover a much larger areas.

South Korea’s current diesel-electric submarines are among the most capable and most sophisticated in the world. Many have German designed fuel cell AIP (air independent Power). Their KSS-III class is noteworthy as the first AIP equipped boat with a vertical launch system (VLS) for ballistic missiles. The missiles are, in this case, conventionally armed precision strike weapons.

And local manufacturers are working on an improved AIP system. This will have a methanol reformer, which promises to be safer, lighter and more compact. Meanwhile the country is likely to be one of the first to deploy the latest lithium-based batteries aboard submarines. A system is already being tested.
Yet, while these technologies reduce the gap between diesel-electric submarines and nuclear ones, and have their own tactical advantages, they are really not comparable. Nuclear submarines will still be faster, especially over longer distances. They will have much greater endurance and more power for other uses, like powerful sonar.

Potential International Partners For A South Korean SSN

South Korea could take the lonely path of truly indigenous project. But it would be faster and less risky to work with a country with existing experience. Like Australia, South Korea is looking to overseas partners with existing nuclear submarines for help. In their case the two obvious countries to consider are the US and France.

For many the natural partner is seen as the US, a strong ally of the country. Yet the US has been reticent to share nuclear propulsion technology, until AUKUS. Even with AUKUS, there does not seem to be any movement on this front, at least publicly.

There are a few challenges with South Korea using US reactors. American reactors currently use highly-enriched uranium. Transfer would not breach any treaties, but it would give the appearance of delivering weapon-grade uranium. Bad optics.

Additionally the U.S. Navy’s nuclear submarines are extremely large and expensive, likely beyond South Korea’s needs and ambitions.

Besides the US, South Korea has had an effective international procurement strategy. Germany, UK, France, and even Russia have provided modern technologies for their home-grown KSS-III submarine.

If South Korea were to use the KSS-III class as a basis for KSS-N, then France may be a more obvious primary partner. Their reactors use low-enriched uranium, like most civilian applications. Operationally this can be a disadvantage, as they need refueling more often. But politically, it is a strength.

France has been building nuclear submarines for decades and is helping Brazil with a similar project. In that case Brazil is designing and building the reactor, and France is helping with submarine design and integration. For KSS-N we might expect to see a French reactor.

France’s latest Suffren class submarine as a slightly larger hull diameter than KSS-III. Diameter is the most important dimension here because it dictates the physical size of the systems. It is possible maybe, that the French reactor could fit inside KSS-III hull however. The earlier Rubis class is much smaller still, demonstrating that nuclear propulsion does not necessarily require a physically large submarine.

KSS-III is relatively large for a non-nuclear submarine. The nuclear reactor could slot in, replacing the hull compartment currently used for AIP. Together with reducing the batteries, it might allow only a small increase in overall size. Naturally the exact arrangement of the propulsion machinery, and degree of sound insulation, may be a factor. But it is not hard to imagine a KSS-III based boat with a French reactor. Or French assistance wit a Korean reactor.

The idea that France could help South Korea with nuclear submarines has been raised by both countries. AUKUS, and the wider advances in the submarine fleets of Asian navies, can only help reinforce the idea.

South Korea has advanced submarine capabilities, and is increasingly self-sufficient for the fundamental aspects. A nuclear powered submarine does not appear out off reach.
South Korea Begins Construction on 2nd KSS-III Batch-II Submarine
South Korea Begins Construction on 2nd KSS-III Batch-II Submarine
02 Jan 2022
South Korea has begun construction on the second KSS-III Batch-II submarine. The boat, built by local shipbuilder Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering (DSME), will be completed by 2026 and delivered to the Republic of Korea Navy (ROKN) in 2028 after undergoing sea trials.
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The ROKN plans to acquire 3 Batch-II submarines, followed by another 3 Batch-III ships, for a total of 9 KSS-III submarines. The KSS-III, also called the Jang-Bogo-III or Dosan Ahn Changho-class, is the last phase of the KSS program, which, when finished, will see the ROKN acquire a total of 27 submarines.
The KSS-III is the largest class of submarine in the ROKN. The 3,600 ton (surface displacement) Batch-II variant will be capable of carrying 10 submarine-launched ballistic missiles, 4 more than the 3,300 ton (surface displacement) KSS-III Batch-I. Submarine displacement has grown with each phase of the KSS program; the KSS-I and KSS-II displaces 1,200 tons and 1,800 tons respectively when surfaced. The KSS-III Batch-III ships are likely to have a surface displacement of around 4,000 tons. The three KSS-III submarines of the first batch have all been launched. South Korea’s Agency for Defense Development (ADD) successfully completed the launch of its K-SLBM (named Hyunmoo 4-4) on 15 September 2021. The first Batch I sub, ROKS Dosan Ahn Chang-ho (SS-083) was commissioned with the ROKN on 13 August 2021.
The Batch-II is 89 m in length, 9.6 m in width, and has a crew of 50. It will use air-independent propulsion and be able to generate a maximum speed of 20 kts. According to DAPA, the Batch-II will be the second submarine in the world to use lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, after Japan’s Soryu-class. The use of Li-ion batteries means that the ship will be able to remain submerged for longer, making it less vulnerable to anti-submarine platforms. It will also have a more advanced sonar and combat system than previous submarines.
According to DSME, 80% of the components in the Batch-II ships will be produced domestically, a significant increase from previous models. It is hoped that this will create jobs and make the ship more competitive in the export market. However it has already been announced that Spain’s Indra would provide the SIGINT systems and France’s ECA Group would provide the steering consoles.
Productions Begins on Italian Navy’s U212NFS New Generation Submarine
Productions Begins on Italian Navy’s U212NFS New Generation Submarine
11 Jan 2022

Italian shipbuilder Fincantieri today started production activities for the first of 2 new-generation submarines, as part of the U212NFS (Near Future Submarine) acquisition program of the Italian Navy.
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Aselsan’s Zargana to protect Pakistan’s Agosta 90B submarines against torpedoes
Aselsan’s Zargana to protect Pakistan’s Agosta 90B submarines against torpedoes
09 Jan 2022
Aselsan has completed factory acceptance tests of the Zargana Torpedo Countermeasure System for the Pakistan Navy's Agosta 90B-class submarines MLU.
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First Details About the Italian Navy’s U212 NFS
First Details About the Italian Navy’s U212 NFS
13 Jan 2022
A key milestone in the new generation underwater platform development was reached this week by Fincantieri shipbuilding group and Italian Navy, with the launch of the U212 NFS (Near Future Submarine) programme production phase at the shipbuilder’s integrated shipyard in Muggiano (La Spezia).
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Болгария решила возродить подводный флот
21 января 2022

Болгария хочет приобрести две подводные лодки, чтобы восстановить свой подводный флот. Как отмечает местное издание Euroaktiv, последнюю болгарскую подлодку "Слава" класса "Ромео" списали десять лет назад, и сейчас она функционирует в качестве музея. С 2011 года у причерноморского государства нет подводного флота, но в разгар украинского кризиса потребность в нем растет.
Год назад болгарские власти рассматривали возможность покупки одной подводной лодки, но вопрос не находился в числе приоритетных. Теперь, полагает Euroaktiv, позиция правительства изменилась.

Подлодка-музей Слава, Болгария
Подлодка-музей "Слава", Болгария
Муниципалитет Варны

"Мы ведем переговоры с одной из стран о покупке подводных лодок, – заявил в интервью Nova TV министр обороны Болгарии Стефан Янев. – Есть способы найти деньги на подводные лодки в госбюджете. Да, приобрети абсолютно новые субмарины мы не сможем, но, по крайней мере, они будут в хорошем техническом состоянии".

Относительно потенциального конфликта между Россией и Украиной министр обороны заявил, что Болгария допускает три возможных сценария, но официальная позиция Софии не обнародована. Два дня назад президент Румен Радев заявил, что международное сообщество должно снизить эскалацию конфликта и найти мирное решение кризиса.

"В феврале запланирована встреча министров обороны стран НАТО. До тех пор у нас должна быть сформулирована официальная позиция, которую я смогу отстаивать на встрече", – добавил Стефан Янев.

"Люди страдают от войны, она никому не нужна, но мы обязаны принять меры и быть к ней готовыми, – также сказал он. – НАТО и США заявили, что не будут вмешиваться непосредственно в конфликт, и Болгария имеет свой вклад в решения НАТО. Для Болгарии могут быть и другие последствия такого конфликта, поэтому мы должны быть готовы".

В свою очередь издание Navy Recognition предполагает, что Болгария ведет переговоры о покупке подлодок с Германией. В пользу этой версии говорит тот факт, что недавно София заказала у немецкой компании Lürssen Werft пару патрульных кораблей на базе проекта корветов класса "Брауншвейг". Их поставка ожидается в 2025 и 2026 годах. Кроме того, Lürssen Werft имеет производственную площадку в Болгарии.

Бо́льшая часть болгарского флота имеет еще советское происхождение. Это касается и четырех дизель-электрических подлодок класса "Ромео", построенных по проекту 633 в период с 1957 по 1961 годы. Подводное водоизмещение этих субмарин составляло 1830 тонн, длина корпуса – 76,6 метра, ширина – 6,7 метра. Под водой они развивали скорость до 13 узлов. Арсенал каждой подлодки – 14 торпед калибра 533 мм или 28 мин.

ДЭПЛ класса "Ромео" оснащались гидроакустическим комплексом "Арктика-М" для сопровождения целей, а также пассивной гидроакустической системой МГ-15.
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